Carry extra food and water.
In winter time – Don’t rely on minimum lighting requirements. Consider carrying a front light. It is strongly recommended that riders use more that one rear red light.
Wear a reflective vest, reflective leg bands, and other brightly reflective clothing.
Carry a tool kit, spare inner tubes (and patches), and perhaps a spare fold-up tire. Be sure your pump is working.
Be prepared for weather. Make sure you take along clothes to protect you from cold and wet conditions.
Mud Guards are strongly recommended.
Ziploc bags are useful for keeping phones & food dry.
Road surfaces vary. Narrow tires suffer more impact punctures but wider tires have more drag. If riding a mountain bike, consider using slick tires.
Use a sensible gear range.
Author: Colm Staunton